What is a spray nozzle?
A spray nozzle is a precision- engineered piece of equipment through which liquid is mixed with pressurized air in order to atomize the liquid into minute droplets, which are intended to impact on a target surface. The applications are typically to put paint or any other type of covering on a surface at a desired consistency, or to spread a mist of chemical treatments to crops, plants or soil areas. They are also widely used in agriculture for crop spraying, for spray-painting everything from cars to houses, and for spray drying milk and pharmaceutical products.
All of these industries use specialized nozzles to give exactly the required performance at a regulated pressure and flow rate. Each type of nozzle is designed to produce a spray pattern and the most popular spray patterns include what are termed flat fan, full cone and hollow cone.
Flat fan nozzle designs give an even distribution of particles with very high impact in a flat pattern, these nozzles are designed to be used at high pressure and tend to be manufactured from stainless steel, brass, tungsten, or plastic.
They are the most commonly used nozzle design and are used extensively in the agro chemical industries because they can produce droplets from fine to coarse depending on the nozzle size and pressure. Because they produce a spray pattern that is so concentrated and focused they are used widely for cleaning, cooling, coating objects, treating surfaces and conveyer lubrication.
Also used a lot in agriculture and horticulture are drift reducing nozzles that produce larger droplets and eliminate the finer ones, thereby reducing drift, which is desirable when selectively spraying soil or large plants.
Full cone nozzles are used where a very fine spray pattern is required for uniform coverage of wide areas is needed ideal for spray painting in a precise and even stream of smaller droplets, therefore ideally suited to spray painting.
The other type of cone nozzle is the hollow cone type which also produces a finer spray pattern but with the concentration of droplets being around the outside of the cone, giving a ring of concentrated spray droplets. They are made in a number of configurations either right angles or with a swirl chamber so the droplets are atomized very finely.
Solid stream nozzles are the simplest in design as the liquid being pumped through them does not change angle at all it just goes through either a circular or elliptical orifice producing either a full cone or flat spray pattern, having no internal parts like a vane to affect the flow of liquid it produces the highest impact. For this reason it is the most popular type of nozzle used for cleaning and precision jet cutting applications as they produce a stream at very high pressures that can maintain a column or stream over the longest distance with the least amount of drift. As you would expect these high pressure nozzles are manufactured out of the most hard wearing materials like tungsten carbide, stainless steel, giving them long life and a high degree of precision.
All spray nozzles are used to produce a spray of liquid droplets when the liquid is pumped through them at high pressure along with compressed air. They are all designed for high performance and minimal clogging to produce uniformly sized droplets in the desired pattern and concentration.